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During the Napoleonic Wars, a brash British captain pushes his ship and crew to their limits in pursuit of a formidable French war vessel around South America.

Greek general Themistokles leads the charge against invading Persian forces led by mortal-turned-god Xerxes and Artemisia, vengeful commander of the Persian navy.

The story of the first major battle of the American phase of the Vietnam War, and the soldiers on both sides that fought it, while their wives wait nervously and anxiously at home for the good news or the bad news.

It is the time of the Crusades during the Middle Ages - the world shaping year collision between Europe and the East.

A blacksmith named Balian has lost his family and nearly his faith. The religious wars raging in the far-off Holy Land seem remote to him, yet he is pulled into that immense drama.

Amid the pageantry and intrigues of medieval Jerusalem he falls in love, grows into a leader, and ultimately uses all his courage and skill to defend the city against staggering odds.

Destiny comes seeking Balian in the form of a great knight, Godfrey of Ibelin, a Crusader briefly home to France from fighting in the East.

In Jerusalem at that moment--between the Second and Third Crusades--a fragile peace prevails, through the efforts of its enlightened Christian king, Baldwin IV, aided by his advisor Tiberias, and the military Written by Sujit R.

I really enjoyed this movie. The way the movie started in Europe and how dark it was there Orlando Bloom, actually surprisingly, was able to carry the movie as a lead.

I was surprised he had the heft to do it, but I agree with the critic who said that the beard helped. He was a man, not a boy.

Portrayal of the Muslims. In being "even-handed" to Christians and Muslims there, if anything, they emphasized the Christian fanatics in the form of the Templars in particular, to simplify things as being the "badguys" more than anyone else I thought this got a tad gratuitous.

The only good purported Christians were basically acting Agnostic Bloom, Neeson, etc. The actual religious Christians were made out to be hypocrites.

Meanwhile Saladhudin was a man of honor.. Movie could definitely have a little more narrative focus and maybe have a little more of an emotional circle for Orlando Bloom character.

But the movie tackled a HUGE topic and tackled it fairly well. I just wish there was a better script to handle the compelling personal journey for Orlando Bloom from widower, murderer seeking redemption, lost bastard son that was PROMISED at the beginning.

Plus, we hear why more than one celeb wants to be snowed in with Idris Elba. See our favorite Sundance moments. Enjoy a night in with these popular movies available to stream now with Prime Video.

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Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Balian of Ibelin travels to Jerusalem during the Crusades of the 12th century, and there he finds himself as the defender of the city and its people.

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Learn more More Like This. The Last Samurai Black Hawk Down Enemy at the Gates A Russian and a German sniper play a game of cat-and-mouse during the Battle of Stalingrad.

The Far Side of the World Rise of an Empire We Were Soldiers Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Godfrey de Ibelin Philip Glenister Balian de Ibelin Bronson Webb English Sergeant Nikolaj Coster-Waldau Village Sheriff Steven Robertson Angelic Priest Marton Csokas Guy de Lusignan Alexander Siddig Edit Storyline It is the time of the Crusades during the Middle Ages - the world shaping year collision between Europe and the East.

Be without fear in the face of your enemies. Safeguard the helpless, and do no wrong. English Arabic Latin Italian.

Dolby Digital Dolby Digital 5. Edit Did You Know? Trivia The chain mail for the film was made by the Weta Workshop, which also made the chain mail for The Lord of the Rings trilogy.

Goofs After the breach in the wall during the siege on Jerusalem, when the camera pans overhead there is no obvious evidence of rubble despite a relatively large gap.

Quotes [ first lines ] Gravedigger: Clear the road, if you will. Crazy Credits The opening 20th Century Fox logo has a ocher-yellow tint added to it.

Also, there is now more graphic violence in all the battle scenes, with newly added shots of spurting blood and new close-ups of wounds being inflicted.

In the opening scene, there is a shot of the Priest Michael Sheen splitting open his apple only to find that it is rotten.

There is a new scene of Balian looking at the sapling planted by his wife Nathalie Cox , coupled with a flashback of her planting it. There are several newly added shots of the French village as Balian walks away from the prison.

These shots help to establish the local geography more clearly than in the theatrical version. While Godfrey is away from the table, the elder brother and his son Nikolaj Coster-Waldau conspire to kill Godfrey and take the mantle of Baron of Ibelin for themselves, which creates an additional reason for the forest ambush later in the film in the theatrical cut, the ambush seems based purely upon an attempt to arrest Balian.

The following day, the Priest gives the Crusaders some background information on Balian, including his role as an engineer and how he used to build towers that could fling "the largest stones.

Italy and Greece were also in open rivalry over the desire to occupy Albania. After the formation of the government of Prime Minister Antonio Salandra in March , the government attempted to win the support of nationalists and moved to the political right.

Militarist nationalists and anti-militarist leftists fought on the streets until the Italian Royal Army forcefully restored calm after having used thousands of men to put down the various protesting forces.

In Italy, society was divided over the war: Italian socialists generally opposed the war and supported pacificism, while nationalists militantly supported the war.

For nationalists, Italy had to maintain its alliance with the Central Powers in order to gain colonial territories at the expense of France.

For the liberals, the war presented Italy a long-awaited opportunity to use an alliance with the Entente to gain certain Italian-populated and other territories from Austria-Hungary, which had long been part of Italian patriotic aims since unification.

In , relatives of Italian revolutionary and republican hero Giuseppe Garibaldi died on the battlefield of France, where they had volunteered to fight.

Federzoni used the memorial services to declare the importance of Italy joining the war and to warn the monarchy of the consequences of continued disunity in Italy if it did not:.

Italy has awaited this since her truly national war, in order to feel unified at last, renewed by the unanimous action and identical sacrifice of all her sons.

Today, while Italy still wavers before the necessity imposed by history, the name of Garibaldi, resanctified by blood, rises again to warn her that she will not be able to defeat the revolution save by fighting and winning her national war.

With nationalist sentiment firmly on the side of reclaiming Italian territories of Austria-Hungary, Italy entered negotiations with the Triple Entente.

The negotiations ended successfully in April when the London Pact was brokered with the Italian government. The pact ensured Italy the right to attain all Italian-populated lands it wanted from Austria-Hungary, as well as concessions in the Balkan Peninsula and suitable compensation for any territory gained by the United Kingdom and France from Germany in Africa.

Italy joined the Triple Entente in its war against Austria-Hungary. The reaction in Italy was divided: Giolitti claimed that Italy would fail in the war, predicting high numbers of mutinies, Austro-Hungarian occupation of even more Italian territory and that the failure would produce a catastrophic rebellion that would destroy the liberal-democratic monarchy and the liberal-democratic secular institutions of the state.

The outset of the campaign against Austria-Hungary looked to initially favor Italy: However, this advantage was never fully utilized because Italian military commander Luigi Cadorna insisted on a dangerous frontal assault against Austria-Hungary in an attempt to occupy the Slovenian plateau and Ljubljana.

After eleven offensives with enormous loss of life and the final victory of the Central Powers , the Italian campaign to take Vienna collapsed.

Upon entering the war, geography was also a difficulty for Italy as its border with Austria-Hungary was along mountainous terrain. In May , Italian forces at , men along the border outnumbered the Austrian and Germans almost precisely four to one.

Their respective governments viewed the Adriatic Sea as "far too dangerous to operate in due the concentration of the Austro-Hungarian fleet there".

Morale fell among Italian soldiers who lived a tedious life when not on the front lines, as they were forbidden to enter theaters or bars, even when on leave.

However, when battles were about to occur alcohol was made freely available to the soldiers in order to reduce tension before the battle.

In order to escape the tedium after battles, some groups of soldiers worked to create improvized whorehouses. The Italian government became increasingly aggravated in with the passive nature of the Serbian army , which had not engaged in a serious offensive against Austria-Hungary for months.

In the spring of , Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padova , in their Strafexpedition , but were defeated by the Italians.

At the same time, Italy faced a shortage of warships, increased attacks by submarines, soaring freight charges threatening the ability to supply food to soldiers, lack of raw materials and equipment and Italians faced high taxes to pay for the war.

Finally in November , Cadorna ended offensive operations and began a defensive approach. In , France, the United Kingdom and the United States offered to send troops to Italy to help it fend off the offensive of the Central Powers , but the Italian government refused as Sonnino did not want Italy to be seen as a client state of the Allies and preferred isolation as the more brave alternative.

The Russian Empire collapsed in a Russian Revolution , eventually resulting in the rise of the communist Bolshevik regime of Vladimir Lenin.

The resulting marginalization of the Eastern Front allowed for more Austro-Hungarian and German forces to arrive on the front against Italy.

Internal dissent against the war grew with increasingly poor economic and social conditions in Italy due to the strain of the war. Much of the profit of the war was being made in the cities, while rural areas were losing income.

After the disastrous Battle of Caporetto in , Italian forces were forced far back into Italian territory as far as the Piave river.

Orlando abandoned the previous isolationist approach to the war and increased coordination with the Allies. The convoy system was introduced to fend off submarine attacks, and allowed Italy to end food shortages from February onward.

Also Italy received more raw materials from the Allies. The year also saw the beginning of official suppression of enemy aliens.

The Italian socialists were increasingly suppressed by the Italian government. The opposing armies repeatedly failed afterwards in major battles such as Battle of Monte Grappa and the Battle of Vittorio Veneto.

After 4 days Italian Army defeated the Austro-Hungarian Army in the latter battle aided by British and French divisions and the fact that the Imperial-Royal started to melt away as news arrived that the constituent regions of the Dual Monarchy had declared independence.

Austria-Hungary ended the fighting against Italy with the armistice on 4 November which ended World War I on this front one week before the 11 November armistice on the Western front.

The Italian government was infuriated by the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson , the President of the United States , as the advocating national self-determination which meant that Italy would not gain Dalmazia as had been promised in the Treaty of London.

During the war, the Italian Royal Army increased in size from 15, men in to , men in , with 5 million recruits in total entering service during the war.

Italian society was divided between the majority pacifists who opposed Italian involvement in the war and the minority of pro-war nationalists who had condemned the Italian government for not having immediately gone to war with Austria-Hungary in The talks provided little territorial gain to Italy because during the peace talks Wilson promised freedom to all European nationalities to form their own nation states.

Furthermore, the British and French decided to divide the German overseas colonies into mandates of their own, with Italy receiving none of them.

Italy also gained no territory from the breakup of the Ottoman Empire , despite a proposal being issued to Italy by the United Kingdom and France during the war, only to see these nations carve up the Ottoman Empire between themselves also exploting the forces of the Arab Revolt.

Despite this, Orlando agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which caused uproar against his government. Civil unrest erupted in Italy between nationalists who supported the war effort and opposed the " mutilated victory " as nationalists referred to it and leftists who were opposed to the war.

His popularity among nationalists led him to be called Il Duce "The Leader" and he used blackshirted paramilitary in his assault on Fiume. The leadership title of Duce and the blackshirt paramilitary uniform would later be adopted by the Fascist movement of Benito Mussolini.

Italy annexed territories that included not only ethnically-mixed places, but also exclusively ethnic Slovene and Croat places, especially within the former Austrian Littoral and the former Duchy of Carniola.

They included one-third of the entire territory inhabited by Slovenes at the time and one-quarter of the entire Slovene population, [88] who was during the 20 years long period of Italian Fascism — subjected to forced Italianization alongside 25, ethnic Germans.

According to author Paul N. Hehn, "the treaty left half a million Slavs inside Italy, while only a few hundred Italians in the fledgling Yugoslav i.

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes renamed Yugoslavia in state". During the war, Mussolini served in the Army and was wounded once.

It was originally dominated by patriotic socialist and syndicalist veterans who opposed the pacifist policies of the Italian Socialist Party.

On 15 April , the Fascists made their debut in political violence, when a group of members from the Fasci di Combattimento attacked the offices of Avanti!

Mussolini changed his original revolutionary policies, such as moving away from anti-clericalism to supporting the Roman Catholic Church and abandoned his public opposition to the monarchy.

In , Giolitti had come back as Prime Minister in an attempt to solve the deadlock. Giolitti believed that the Fascists could be toned down and used to protect the state from the socialists.

He decided to include Fascists on his electoral list for the elections. In October , Mussolini took advantage of a general strike by workers and announced his demands to the government to give the Fascist Party political power or face a coup.

With no immediate response, a small number of Fascists began a long trek across Italy to Rome which was known as the " March on Rome ", claiming to Italians that Fascists were intending to restore law and order.

The King was forced to decide which of the two rival movements in Italy would form the new government: On 28 October , the King invited Mussolini to become Prime Minister, allowing Mussolini and the Fascist Party to pursue their political ambitions as long as they supported the monarchy and its interests.

At 39, Mussolini was young compared to other Italian and European leaders. His supporters named him "Il Duce" "The Leader". Upon taking power, Mussolini formed a legislative coalition with nationalists, liberals and populists.

However, goodwill by the Fascists towards parliamentary democracy faded quickly: Following the election, Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated after calling for an annulment of the elections because of the irregularities.

Following the assassination, the Socialists walked out of parliament, allowing Mussolini to pass more authoritarian laws. In , Mussolini accepted responsibility for the Fascist violence in and promised that dissenters would be dealt with harshly.

This event is considered the onset of undisguised Fascist dictatorship in Italy, though it would be before the Fascist Party was formally declared the only legal party in the country.

Over the next four years, Mussolini eliminated nearly all checks and balances on his power. Local autonomy was swept away and appointed podestas replaced communal mayors and councils.

Soon after all other parties were banned in , parliamentary elections were replaced by plebiscites in which the Grand Council nominated a single list of candidates.

Mussolini wielded enormous political powers as the effective ruler of Italy. The King was a figurehead and handled ceremonial roles, though he retained the power to dismiss the Prime Minister on the advice of the Grand Council—which is what happened in When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September beginning World War II , Mussolini publicly declared on 24 September that Italy had the choice of entering the war or to remain neutral which would cause the country to lose its national dignity.

Nevertheless, despite his aggressive posture, Mussolini kept Italy out of the conflict for several months. In drawing out war plans, Mussolini and the Fascist regime decided that Italy would aim to annex large portions of Africa and the Middle East to be included in its colonial empire.

Hesitance remained from the King and military commander Pietro Badoglio , who warned Mussolini that Italy had too few tanks , armoured vehicles and aircraft available to be able to carry out a long-term war; Badoglio told Mussolini "It is suicide" for Italy to get involved in the European conflict.

Italy hoped to quickly conquer Savoia , Nizza , Corsica and the African colonies of Tunisia and Algeria from the French, but this was quickly stopped when Germany signed an armistice with the French commander Philippe Petain who established Vichy France which retained control over these territories.

This decision by Germany angered the Fascist regime. The one Italian strength that concerned the Allies was the Italian Royal Navy Regia Marina , the fourth-largest navy in the world at the time.

Although the Italian fleet did not inflict serious damage as was feared, it did keep significant British Commonwealth naval forces in the Mediterranean Sea.

This fleet needed to fight the Italian fleet to keep British Commonwealth forces in Egypt and the Middle East from being cut off from Britain. In on the Italian-controlled island of Kastelorizo , off of the coast of Turkey , Italian forces succeeded in repelling British and Australian forces attempting to occupy the island during Operation Abstention.

In December , a covert attack by Italian forces took place in Alexandria , Egypt , in which Italian divers attached explosives to British warships resulting in two British battleships being severely damaged.

This was known as the Raid on Alexandria. In , the Italian navy inflicted a serious blow to a British convoy fleet attempting to reach Malta during Operation Harpoon , sinking multiple British vessels.

Mussolini had intended the war with Greece to prove to Germany that Italy was no minor power in the alliance, but a capable empire which could hold its own weight.

Mussolini boasted to his government that he would even resign from being Italian if anyone found fighting the Greeks to be difficult.

Mussolini in private angrily accused Italians on the battlefield of becoming "overcome with a crisis of artistic sentimentalism and throwing in the towel".

To gain back ground in Greece, Germany reluctantly began a Balkans Campaign alongside Italy which resulted also in the destruction of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in and the ceding of Dalmazia to Italy.

The ceding of the Adriatic Sea islands was considered by the Independent State of Croatia to be a minimal loss, as in exchange for those cessions they were allowed to annex all of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina , which led to the persecution of the Serb population there.

Roatta issued additional special instructions stating that the repression orders must be "carried out most energetically and without any false compassion".

The German army sent a detachment to join the Italian army in Libya to save the colony from the British advance. German army units in the Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel were the mainstay in the campaign to push the British out of Libya and into central Egypt in to For a time in , Italy from an official standpoint controlled large amounts of territory along the Mediterranean Sea.

Italy also oversaw a military occupation over significant sections of southern France, but despite the official territorial achievements, the so-called "Italian Empire" was a paper tiger by By , Italy was failing on every front, by January of the year, half of the Italian forces serving on the Eastern Front had been destroyed, [] the African campaign had collapsed, the Balkans remained unstable and demoralised Italians wanted an end to the war.

Allied troops landed in Sicily with little initial opposition from Italian forces. The situation changed as the Allies ran into German forces, who held out for some time before Sicily was taken over by the Allies.

The Allies steadily advanced through Italy with little opposition from demoralized Italian soldiers, while facing serious opposition from German forces.

By , Mussolini had lost the support of the Italian population for having led a disastrous war effort. To the world, Mussolini was viewed as a "sawdust caesar" for having led his country to war with ill-equipped and poorly trained armed forces that failed in battle.

Mussolini was immediately arrested upon his removal. When the radio brought the unexpected news, Italians assumed the war was practically over.

The Fascist organizations that had for two decades pledged their loyalty to Il Duce were silent—no effort was made by any of them to protest.

The new Badoglio government stripped away the final elements of Fascist government by banning the Fascist Party. The Fascists had never controlled the army, but they did have a separately armed militia, which was merged into the army.

All local Fascist formations clubs and meetings were shut down. Slowly, the most outspoken Fascists were purged from office.

Italy then signed an armistice with the Allied armed forces and the Kingdom of Italy joined the Allies in their war against Germany. The Badoglio government attempted to establish a non-partisan administration and a number of political parties were allowed to exist again after years of being banned under Fascism.

These ranged from liberal to communist parties which all were part of the government. The Italian Social Republic was a German puppet state.

However Mussolini had little power, Hitler and the German armed forces led the campaign against the Allies and saw little interest in preserving Italy as more than a buffer zone against an Allied invasion of Germany.

Life for Italians under German occupation was hard, especially in Rome. Mussolini was captured on 27 April by Communist Italian partisans near the Swiss border as he tried to escape Italy.

On the next day, he was executed for high treason as sentenced in absentia by a tribunal of the National Liberation Committee.

Afterwards, the bodies of Mussolini, his mistress and about fifteen other Fascists were taken to Milan , where they were displayed to the public.

Days later on 2 May , the German forces in Italy surrendered. The government of Badoglio remained in being for some nine months. On 9 June , he was replaced as Prime Minister by the year-old anti-fascist leader Ivanoe Bonomi.

Much like Japan and Germany , the aftermath of World War II left Italy with a destroyed economy, a divided society and anger against the monarchy for its endorsement of the Fascist regime for the previous twenty years.

Even prior to the rise of the Fascists, the monarchy was seen to have performed poorly, with society extremely divided between the wealthy North and poor South.

World War I resulted in Italy making few gains and was seen as what fostered the rise of Fascism. These frustrations compacted into a revival of the Italian republican movement.

The table of results shows some relevant differences in the different parts of Italy. The peninsula seemed to be drastically cut in two areas: Some monarchist groups claimed that there was manipulation by northern republicans, socialists and communists.

Others argued that Italy was still too chaotic in to have an accurate referendum. Regardless, to prevent civil war Umberto II was deposed and a new republic was born with bitter resentment by the new government against the House of Savoy.

All male members of the Savoy family were barred from entering Italy in , which was only repealed in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Kingdom of Italy — For other uses, see Kingdom of Italy disambiguation. Maximum extent of the Italian Empire.

Turin — Florence — Rome — Diplomatic history of World War I. Definitions Economics Fascism and ideology Fascism worldwide Symbolism.

Axis powers Montreux Fascist conference. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Italian constitutional referendum, Italy portal Fascism portal. Retrieved 27 November Six Great Powers in International Comparison.

Retrieved 2 October Stanton; Edward Ramsamy; Peter J. Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 10 September A History of Christianity: Reformation to the Present.

Fascism, Anti-Fascism, and the Resistance in Italy: Love and the Idea of Europe. Italy and the Wider World: Towards a Fairer Distribution".

Italy and the Approach of the First World War. The Macmillan Press Ltd, p. London and New York: Longman Group UK Limited.

Italy and the Great War. University of Wisconsin Press. Longman Group UK Limited, p. Italy from Liberalism to Fascism: James Burgwyn, The legend of the mutilated victory: Italy, the Powers and Eastern Europe, — Young Mussolini and the Intellectual Origins of Fascism.

Recent Interpretations of Facism. Twenty-nine months of Italian occupation of the Province of Ljubljana [ dead link ].

Journal of Contemporary History. The Cambridge companion to modern Italian culture , Cambridge: The Macmillan Bosworth, Richard J.

Longman Coppa, Frank J. The Culture of Consent: Mass Organizations of Leisure in Fascist Italy. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, — excerpt and text search De Grand, Alexander J.

Giovanni Giolitti and liberal Italy from the challenge of mass politics to the rise of fascism, — , Greenwood. The Force of Destiny: The Struggle For Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism and Fascism.

The Pursuit of Italy: The Pope and Mussolini:

Kingdom of - consider, that

Rants, Ravings, and Missives from the Mountaintop — Artikel Hilf der Wikipedia, indem du sie recherchierst und einfügst. Im Verlängerungszeitraum beträgt die Kündigungsfrist wiederum 4 Wochen zum Verlängerungs- bzw. Schlussbestimmung Sollten einzelne Bestimmungen dieses Vertrages unwirksam oder undurchführbar sein oder nach Vertragsschluss unwirksam oder undurchführbar werden, bleibt davon die Wirksamkeit des Vertrages im Übrigen unberührt. Diese Website benutzt Cookies. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Werke von Hunter S.

English Arabic Latin Italian. Dolby Digital Dolby Digital 5. Edit Did You Know? Trivia The chain mail for the film was made by the Weta Workshop, which also made the chain mail for The Lord of the Rings trilogy.

Goofs After the breach in the wall during the siege on Jerusalem, when the camera pans overhead there is no obvious evidence of rubble despite a relatively large gap.

Quotes [ first lines ] Gravedigger: Clear the road, if you will. Crazy Credits The opening 20th Century Fox logo has a ocher-yellow tint added to it.

Also, there is now more graphic violence in all the battle scenes, with newly added shots of spurting blood and new close-ups of wounds being inflicted.

In the opening scene, there is a shot of the Priest Michael Sheen splitting open his apple only to find that it is rotten.

There is a new scene of Balian looking at the sapling planted by his wife Nathalie Cox , coupled with a flashback of her planting it. There are several newly added shots of the French village as Balian walks away from the prison.

These shots help to establish the local geography more clearly than in the theatrical version. While Godfrey is away from the table, the elder brother and his son Nikolaj Coster-Waldau conspire to kill Godfrey and take the mantle of Baron of Ibelin for themselves, which creates an additional reason for the forest ambush later in the film in the theatrical cut, the ambush seems based purely upon an attempt to arrest Balian.

The following day, the Priest gives the Crusaders some background information on Balian, including his role as an engineer and how he used to build towers that could fling "the largest stones.

The ambush scene has several new additions. The ambush is also considerably bloodier than in the theatrical cut. It is the path to heaven.

At Messina, the English Sergeant gives Balian some background information about local trade and why the port is so busy. After waking up, Balian has a bath, but is embarrassed at having to get out of it naked in front of the servant girls.

When he does finally get out, he is extremely uncomfortable in allowing them to dry him, so he grabs the towel and walks off, much to their amusement.

The scene where Balian meets Baldwin IV Edward Norton is longer, with several new lines of dialogue scattered throughout. Additionally, there is a new section of the scene where Balian gives the King advice on how best to protect the city from a massive attack.

After speaking with Baldwin, as Balian leaves, he stumbles over a small toy soldier. Balian smiles at the boy and puts the toy back down.

After Balian has gone, the boy comes and gets the toy. As Balian and Almaric survey the land at Ibelin, Almaric has a line not in the theatrical version; "My lord, this is a poor and dusty place.

The scene between Balian and Sibylla as Balian watches the Muslim servants performing their prayers has some additional dialogue where she tells him about her son.

There is a new scene with Balian where he is walking by the irrigation system and sees the toy boat that the boy used earlier when the water pumps were first set up.

He picks the boat up and looks at it for a moment, before returning it to the water and watching it float away. After the battle of Kerak, as the army leaves, Guy looks at Balian and then at Sibylla and notices them looking at one another; the implication being that he knows Balian and Sibylla have been together.

Immediately after this, there is a new scene of Raynald walking around in circles in his cell repeatedly shouting out his name.

The jail-keeper is trying to have his dinner and looses patience, slamming the inner door of the prison shut. Eraclius leaves the chamber in disgust and meets Guy outside.

There is then a new scene between Balian and Sibylla where Sibylla points out that, as Regent, she is going to have to run the Kingdom until her son is ready to do it himself.

After leaving Balian, Sibylla arrives at the palace in the early morning. There is a new scene of Sibylla teaching her son about England and France.

Tiberias arrives and tells her that if she wants to say goodbye to her brother, she had better do it now. At first, she is reluctant, but Tiberias persuades her to go.

After she and Tiberias leave, the boy places his palm on top of the fire lamp and feels no pain, despite blistering his flesh - thus indicating that he, like his uncle Baldwin IV, has leprosy.

In this version, after she removes the mask to look at his face, she then gently places the mask back on, and tucks it in under his hood.

Immediately after the coronation, an interesting new scene between Balian and the Hospitaler has been added. Balian is throwing a stone at a bush, trying to get a spark so as to make the bush ignite.

They talk briefly, and as the Hospitaler rides away, a bush several feet away from the burning one suddenly ignites in flames without any apparent cause.

Balian turns around in amazement, and then turns back to the Hospitaler, but he is gone; the plains are deserted for miles around.

As Balian looks around, his horse seems to jump in fright. A series of new scenes follow the bush scene. We see the new King signing various documents, and there is a close-up of some wax dropping onto his hand without him feeling anything.

Eraclius and Sibylla both see this, and realize that something is wrong. Next, Tiberias tells Sibylla that rumors are spreading that the boy is ill, and that he needs to be seen publicly to dispel such gossip.

Sibylla breaks down and Tiberius comforts her. Finally, there is a scene between Sibylla and her son in the palm orchard, where she pours poison into his ear so as to euthanize him, whilst singing him to sleep.

The scene where Guy comes to let Raynald out of jail is slightly different. There is some additional dialogue at the start of the scene where Raynald inquires as to whether Baldwin V is dead.

Raynald then asks if Guy has had Balian killed. However, in the theatrical cut he asked, "Have the Templars removed your problem? Saladin now decapitates Raynald as well as cutting his throat there is also more blood when his throat is slit.

As he knights the men in Jerusalem, there is a new scene where Balian meets the gravedigger from the opening scene of the film and exchanges a few words with him.

During the siege, there is a new scene in the infirmary where Sibylla is tending to the gravedigger. They exchange some dialogue, and the gravedigger reveals that he knows she is the Queen.

He then smiles kindly at her and leaves. The scene where Balian wakes up the morning after the final battle is longer. Instead of waking and then immediately standing up, he wakes and looks around, seeing the body of the gravedigger nearby.

He looks at the body and says, "Remember me in France, Master Gravedigger. During the negotiation of terms between Balian and Saladin, an additional line has been added, said by Saladin: A new scene has been added after Balian has surrendered Jerusalem, but before the Christians have left the city.

Balian is washing his face in an alleyway, and is approached by Guy, who challenges him to a sword fight.

When Balian arrives back in France, he sees the tree planted by his wife is now beginning to bloom. Connections Referenced in Kingdom of Heaven: In theory, ministers were solely responsible to the king.

However, in practice it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament. Members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts.

If not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies. Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian populists and classical liberals.

Elections took place in , and Between and , Italy was quasi- de jure Fascist dictatorship, as the constitution formally remained in effect without alteration by the Fascists, though the monarchy also formally accepted Fascist policies and Fascist institutions.

Changes in politics occurred, consisting of the establishment of the Grand Council of Fascism as a government body in , which took control of the government system, as well as the Chamber of Deputies being replaced with the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations as of The monarchs of the House of Savoy who led Italy were:.

The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of concerted efforts of Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula.

After the Revolutions of , the apparent leader of the Italian unification movement was Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi , renowned for his extremely loyal followers.

Though the Kingdom had no physical connection to Rome seen by all as the natural capital of Italy, but still capital of the Papal States , the Kingdom had successfully challenged Austria in the Second Italian War of Independence , liberating Lombardy-Venetia from Austrian rule.

The Kingdom also had established important alliances which helped it improve the possibility of Italian unification, such as with the United Kingdom and France in the Crimean War.

Cavour moved to challenge republican unification efforts by Garibaldi by organizing popular revolts in the Papal States and used these revolts as a pretext to invade the country, even though the invasion angered the Roman Catholics , whom he told that the invasion was an effort to protect the Roman Catholic Church from the anti-clerical secularist nationalist republicans of Garibaldi.

Subsequently, the Parliament declared the creation of the Kingdom of Italy on 18 February officially proclaiming it on 17 March [10] composed of both Northern Italy and Southern Italy.

King Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy was then declared King of Italy , though he did not renumber himself with the assumption of the new title.

This title had been out of use since the abdication of Napoleon I of France on 6 April Following the unification of most of Italy, tensions between the royalists and republicans erupted.

During the ensuing political instability, Garibaldi and the republicans became increasingly revolutionary in tone. In exchange, Prussia would allow Italy to annex Austrian-controlled Veneto.

At this point, one major obstacle to Italian unity remained: Rome was captured by the Kingdom of Italy after several battles and guerilla-like warfare by Papal Zouaves and official troops of the Holy See against the Italian invaders.

Economic conditions in the united Italy were poor. The unification movement had largely been dependent on the support of foreign powers and remained so afterwards.

Following the capture of Rome in from French forces of Napoleon III , Papal troops and Zouaves , relations between Italy and the Vatican remained sour for the next sixty years with the Popes declaring themselves to be prisoners in the Vatican.

The Roman Catholic Church frequently protested the actions of the secular and anticlerical-influenced Italian governments, refused to meet with envoys from the King and urged Roman Catholics not to vote in Italian elections.

A major challenge for the prime ministers of the new Kingdom of Italy was integrating the political and administrative systems of the seven different major components into a unified set of policies.

The different regions were proud of their own historic patterns and could not easily be fitted into the Sardinian model. Cavour started the planning, but died before it was fully developed—indeed, the challenges of administration the various bureaucracies are thought to have hastened his death.

They practically all followed the Napoleonic precedent, so harmonization was straightforward. The second challenge was to develop a parliamentary system.

Cavour and most liberals up and down the peninsula highly admired the British system, so it became the model for Italy to this day.

Harmonizing the Army and Navy were much more complex, chiefly because the systems of recruiting soldiers and selecting and promoting officers were so different and needed to be grandfathered in over decades.

The disorganization helps explain why the Italian naval performance in the war was so abysmal. The military system was slowly integrated over several decades.

The multiple educational system likewise proved complicated for there were few common elements. Shortly before his death, Cavour appointed Francesco De Sanctis as minister of education.

De Sanctis was an eminent scholar from the University of Naples who proved an able and patient administrator. The addition of Veneto in and Rome in further complicated the challenges of bureaucratic coordination.

Italian society after unification and throughout most of the Liberal Period was sharply divided along class, linguistic, regional and social lines.

On 20 September , the military forces of the King of Italy overthrew what little was left of the Papal States , capturing in particular the city of Rome.

The following year, the capital was moved from Florence to Rome. In , the dispute was settled by the Lateran Treaty, in which the King recognized Vatican City as an independent state and paid a large sum of money to compensate the Church for the loss of the Papal States.

Liberal governments generally followed a policy of limiting the role of the Roman Catholic Church and its clergy as the state confiscated church lands.

Common cultural traits in Italy in this time were social conservative in nature, including a strong belief in the family as an institution and patriarchal values.

In other areas, Italian culture was divided: After unification, a number of descendents of former royal nobility became residents of Italy, comprising 7, noble families.

Many wealthy landowners maintained a feudal-like tight control over "their" peasants. Italian society in this period remained highly divided along regional and local sub-societies which often had historical rivalries with each other.

In , Italy lacked a single national language: Illiteracy was high, with the census indicating that This illiteracy rate was far higher than that of western European countries in the same time period and also no national popular press was possible due to the multiplicity of regional languages.

Italy had very few public schools upon unification, so the Italian government in the Liberal Period attempted to increase literacy by establishing state-funded schools to teach the official Italian language.

Living standards were low during the Liberal Period, especially in southern Italy, due to various diseases such as malaria and epidemics that occurred during the period.

As a whole, there was initially a high death rate in at 30 people dying per 1, people, though this reduced to In addition, the mortality rate of children dying in their first year after birth in was The mortality rate of children dying in their first year after birth decreased to an average of In terms of the entire period, Giovanni Federico has argued that Italy was not economically backward, for there was substantial development at various times between and Unlike most modern nations that relied on large corporations, industrial growth in Italy was a product of the entrepreneurial efforts of small, family-owned firms that succeeded in a local competitive environment.

Political unification did not systematically bring economic integration, as Italy faced serious economic problems and economic division along political, social and regional lines.

In the Liberal Period, Italy remained highly economically dependent on foreign trade and the international price of coal and grain.

Advances in technology, the sale of vast Church estates, foreign competition along with export opportunities rapidly transformed the agricultural sector in Italy shortly after unification.

The overwhelming attention paid to foreign policy alienated the agricultural community in Italy which had been in decline since Both radical and conservative forces in the Italian parliament demanded that the government investigate how to improve agriculture in Italy.

The investigation, which started in and was released eight years later, showed that agriculture was not improving, that landowners were earning revenue from their lands and contributing almost nothing to the development of the land.

Lower class Italians were hurt by the break-up of communal lands to the benefit of landlords. Most of the workers on the agricultural lands were not peasants , but short-term laborers "braccianti" who at best were employed for one year.

Peasants without stable income were forced to live off of meager food supplies, disease was spreading rapidly and plagues were reported, including a major cholera epidemic which killed at least 55, people.

The Italian government could not deal with the situation effectively because of overspending that left Italy heavily in debt.

Italy also suffered economically as a consequence of overproduction of grapes by their vineyards. Italy prospered as the largest exporter of wine in Europe, but following the recovery of France in Southern Italy was overproducing and had to cut back, which caused greater unemployment and bankruptcies.

The Italian government invested heavily in developing railways in the s, more than doubling the existing length of railway line between and An census found that over 1 million southern day-laborers were chronically under-employed and were very likely to become seasonal emigrants in order to economically sustain themselves.

From the s onward, intellectuals, scholars and politicians examined the economic and social conditions of Southern Italy "Il Mezzogiorno" , a movement known as meridionalismo "Meridionalism".

For example, the Commission of Inquiry into the South indicated that the Italian government thus far had failed to ameliorate the severe economic differences and the limitation of voting rights only to those with sufficient property allowed rich landowners to exploit the poor.

In , Minghetti was ousted and replaced by liberal Agostino Depretis , who began the long Liberal Period. The Liberal Period was marked by corruption, government instability, continued poverty in Southern Italy and use of authoritarian measures by the Italian government.

Depretis began his term as Prime Minister by initiating an experimental political notion known as trasformismo "transformism".

The theory of trasformismo was that a cabinet should select a variety of moderates and capable politicians from a non-partisan perspective.

In practice, trasformismo was authoritarian and corrupt as Depretis pressured districts to vote for his candidates, if they wished to gain favourable concessions from Depretis when in power.

The results of the Italian general election of resulted in only four representatives from the right being elected, allowing the government to be dominated by Depretis.

Despotic and corrupt actions are believed to be the key means in which Depretis managed to keep support in Southern Italy. Depretis put through authoritarian measures, such as banning public meetings, placing "dangerous" individuals in internal exile on remote penal islands across Italy and adopting militarist policies.

Depretis enacted controversial legislation for the time, such as abolishing arrest for debt, making elementary education free and compulsory while ending compulsory religious teaching in elementary schools.

In , Francesco Crispi became Prime Minister and began focusing government efforts on foreign policy. Crispi worked to build Italy as a great world power through increased military expenditures, advocacy of expansionism [33] and trying to win the favor of Germany.

Italy joined the Triple Alliance which included both Germany and Austria—Hungary in and which remained officially intact until While helping Italy develop strategically, he continued trasformismo and became authoritarian, once suggesting the use of martial law to ban opposition parties.

Francesco Crispi was Prime Minister for a total of six years, from until and again from until Bosworth says of his foreign policy:.

Crispi pursued policies whose openly aggressive character would not be equaled until the days of the Fascist regime.

Crispi increased military expenditure, talked cheerfully of a European conflagration, and alarmed his German or British friends with this suggestions of preventative attacks on his enemies.

Crispi, whose private life he was perhaps a trigamist and personal finances Crispi greatly admired the United Kingdom, but was unable to get British assistance for his aggressive foreign policy and turned instead to Germany.

It remained officially intact until and prevented hostilities between Italy and Austria, which controlled border regions that Italy claimed.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, Italy emulated the Great Powers in acquiring colonies, especially in the scramble to take control of Africa that took place in the s.

Italy was weak in military and economic resources in comparison with Britain, France and Germany, but it proved difficult due to popular resistance and it was unprofitable due to heavy military costs and the lesser economic value of spheres of influence remaining when Italy began to colonize.

Britain was eager to block French influence and assisted Italy in gaining territory of the Red Sea. A number of colonial projects were undertaken by the government.

These were done to gain support of Italian nationalists and imperialists, who wanted to rebuild a Roman Empire. Italy had already large settlements in Alexandria , Cairo and Tunis.

Italy first attempted to gain colonies through negotiations with other world powers to make colonial concessions, but these negotiations failed.

Italy also sent missionaries to uncolonized lands to investigate the potential for Italian colonization. The most promising and realistic of these were parts of Africa.

Italian missionaries had already established a foothold at Massawa in present-day Eritrea in the s and had entered deep into the Ethiopian Empire.

The beginning of colonialism came in , shortly after the fall of Egyptian rule in Khartoum , when Italy landed soldiers at Massawa in East Africa. In , Italy annexed Massawa by force, creating the colony of Italian Eritrea.

The trade was promoted by the low duties paid on Italian trade. Italy exported manufactured products and imported coffee, beeswax and hides.

The Treaty of Wuchale , signed in , stated in the Italian language version that Ethiopia was to become an Italian protectorate, while the Ethiopian Amharic language version stated that the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II could go through Italy to conduct foreign affairs.

This happened presumably due to the mistranslation of a verb, which formed a permissive clause in Amharic and a mandatory one in Italian.

In response, Britain decided to back the Italians to challenge Russian influence in Africa and declared that all of Ethiopia was within the sphere of Italian interest.

On the verge of war, Italian militarism and nationalism reached a peak, with Italians flocking to the Royal Italian Army , hoping to take part in the upcoming war.

The Italian and British army failed on the battlefield and were overwhelmed by a huge Ethiopian army at the Battle of Adwa.

At that point, the Italian invasion force was forced to retreat into Eritrea. The war formally ended with the Treaty of Addis Ababa in , which abrogated the Treaty of Wuchale recognizing Ethiopia as an independent country.

The failed Ethiopian campaign was one of the few military victories scored by the Africans against an imperial power at this time.

On 7 June , the concession was taken into Italian possession and administered by an Italian consul. These provinces together formed what became known as Libya.

The war ended only one year later, but the occupation resulted in acts of discrimination against Libyans such as the forced deportation of Libyans to the Tremiti Islands in October By , one third of these Libyan refugees had died from a lack of food and shelter.

Giolitti had spent his earlier life as a civil servant and then took positions within the cabinets of Crispi.

Giolitti was the first long-term Italian Prime Minister in many years because he mastered the political concept of trasformismo by manipulating, coercing and bribing officials to his side.

Italy was the first country to use the airship for military purposes and undertook aerial bombing on the Ottoman forces. Giolitti returned as Prime Minister only briefly in , but the era of liberalism was effectively over in Italy.

The and elections saw gains made by Socialist, Catholic and nationalist parties at the expense of the traditionally dominant Liberals and Radicals , who were increasingly fractured and weakened as a result.

In the lead-up to World War I , the Kingdom of Italy faced a number of short-term and long-term problems in determining its allies and objectives.

These islands had been formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Italy and Greece were also in open rivalry over the desire to occupy Albania.

After the formation of the government of Prime Minister Antonio Salandra in March , the government attempted to win the support of nationalists and moved to the political right.

Militarist nationalists and anti-militarist leftists fought on the streets until the Italian Royal Army forcefully restored calm after having used thousands of men to put down the various protesting forces.

In Italy, society was divided over the war: Italian socialists generally opposed the war and supported pacificism, while nationalists militantly supported the war.

For nationalists, Italy had to maintain its alliance with the Central Powers in order to gain colonial territories at the expense of France.

For the liberals, the war presented Italy a long-awaited opportunity to use an alliance with the Entente to gain certain Italian-populated and other territories from Austria-Hungary, which had long been part of Italian patriotic aims since unification.

In , relatives of Italian revolutionary and republican hero Giuseppe Garibaldi died on the battlefield of France, where they had volunteered to fight.

Federzoni used the memorial services to declare the importance of Italy joining the war and to warn the monarchy of the consequences of continued disunity in Italy if it did not:.

Italy has awaited this since her truly national war, in order to feel unified at last, renewed by the unanimous action and identical sacrifice of all her sons.

Today, while Italy still wavers before the necessity imposed by history, the name of Garibaldi, resanctified by blood, rises again to warn her that she will not be able to defeat the revolution save by fighting and winning her national war.

With nationalist sentiment firmly on the side of reclaiming Italian territories of Austria-Hungary, Italy entered negotiations with the Triple Entente.

The negotiations ended successfully in April when the London Pact was brokered with the Italian government.

The pact ensured Italy the right to attain all Italian-populated lands it wanted from Austria-Hungary, as well as concessions in the Balkan Peninsula and suitable compensation for any territory gained by the United Kingdom and France from Germany in Africa.

Italy joined the Triple Entente in its war against Austria-Hungary. The reaction in Italy was divided: Giolitti claimed that Italy would fail in the war, predicting high numbers of mutinies, Austro-Hungarian occupation of even more Italian territory and that the failure would produce a catastrophic rebellion that would destroy the liberal-democratic monarchy and the liberal-democratic secular institutions of the state.

The outset of the campaign against Austria-Hungary looked to initially favor Italy: However, this advantage was never fully utilized because Italian military commander Luigi Cadorna insisted on a dangerous frontal assault against Austria-Hungary in an attempt to occupy the Slovenian plateau and Ljubljana.

After eleven offensives with enormous loss of life and the final victory of the Central Powers , the Italian campaign to take Vienna collapsed.

Upon entering the war, geography was also a difficulty for Italy as its border with Austria-Hungary was along mountainous terrain. In May , Italian forces at , men along the border outnumbered the Austrian and Germans almost precisely four to one.

Their respective governments viewed the Adriatic Sea as "far too dangerous to operate in due the concentration of the Austro-Hungarian fleet there".

Morale fell among Italian soldiers who lived a tedious life when not on the front lines, as they were forbidden to enter theaters or bars, even when on leave.

However, when battles were about to occur alcohol was made freely available to the soldiers in order to reduce tension before the battle.

In order to escape the tedium after battles, some groups of soldiers worked to create improvized whorehouses. The Italian government became increasingly aggravated in with the passive nature of the Serbian army , which had not engaged in a serious offensive against Austria-Hungary for months.

In the spring of , Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padova , in their Strafexpedition , but were defeated by the Italians.

At the same time, Italy faced a shortage of warships, increased attacks by submarines, soaring freight charges threatening the ability to supply food to soldiers, lack of raw materials and equipment and Italians faced high taxes to pay for the war.

Finally in November , Cadorna ended offensive operations and began a defensive approach. In , France, the United Kingdom and the United States offered to send troops to Italy to help it fend off the offensive of the Central Powers , but the Italian government refused as Sonnino did not want Italy to be seen as a client state of the Allies and preferred isolation as the more brave alternative.

The Russian Empire collapsed in a Russian Revolution , eventually resulting in the rise of the communist Bolshevik regime of Vladimir Lenin. The resulting marginalization of the Eastern Front allowed for more Austro-Hungarian and German forces to arrive on the front against Italy.

Internal dissent against the war grew with increasingly poor economic and social conditions in Italy due to the strain of the war. Much of the profit of the war was being made in the cities, while rural areas were losing income.

After the disastrous Battle of Caporetto in , Italian forces were forced far back into Italian territory as far as the Piave river.

Orlando abandoned the previous isolationist approach to the war and increased coordination with the Allies.

The convoy system was introduced to fend off submarine attacks, and allowed Italy to end food shortages from February onward.

Also Italy received more raw materials from the Allies. The year also saw the beginning of official suppression of enemy aliens. The Italian socialists were increasingly suppressed by the Italian government.

The opposing armies repeatedly failed afterwards in major battles such as Battle of Monte Grappa and the Battle of Vittorio Veneto.

After 4 days Italian Army defeated the Austro-Hungarian Army in the latter battle aided by British and French divisions and the fact that the Imperial-Royal started to melt away as news arrived that the constituent regions of the Dual Monarchy had declared independence.

Austria-Hungary ended the fighting against Italy with the armistice on 4 November which ended World War I on this front one week before the 11 November armistice on the Western front.

The Italian government was infuriated by the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson , the President of the United States , as the advocating national self-determination which meant that Italy would not gain Dalmazia as had been promised in the Treaty of London.

During the war, the Italian Royal Army increased in size from 15, men in to , men in , with 5 million recruits in total entering service during the war.

Italian society was divided between the majority pacifists who opposed Italian involvement in the war and the minority of pro-war nationalists who had condemned the Italian government for not having immediately gone to war with Austria-Hungary in The talks provided little territorial gain to Italy because during the peace talks Wilson promised freedom to all European nationalities to form their own nation states.

Furthermore, the British and French decided to divide the German overseas colonies into mandates of their own, with Italy receiving none of them.

Italy also gained no territory from the breakup of the Ottoman Empire , despite a proposal being issued to Italy by the United Kingdom and France during the war, only to see these nations carve up the Ottoman Empire between themselves also exploting the forces of the Arab Revolt.

Despite this, Orlando agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which caused uproar against his government. Civil unrest erupted in Italy between nationalists who supported the war effort and opposed the " mutilated victory " as nationalists referred to it and leftists who were opposed to the war.

His popularity among nationalists led him to be called Il Duce "The Leader" and he used blackshirted paramilitary in his assault on Fiume. The leadership title of Duce and the blackshirt paramilitary uniform would later be adopted by the Fascist movement of Benito Mussolini.

Italy annexed territories that included not only ethnically-mixed places, but also exclusively ethnic Slovene and Croat places, especially within the former Austrian Littoral and the former Duchy of Carniola.

They included one-third of the entire territory inhabited by Slovenes at the time and one-quarter of the entire Slovene population, [88] who was during the 20 years long period of Italian Fascism — subjected to forced Italianization alongside 25, ethnic Germans.

According to author Paul N. Hehn, "the treaty left half a million Slavs inside Italy, while only a few hundred Italians in the fledgling Yugoslav i.

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes renamed Yugoslavia in state". During the war, Mussolini served in the Army and was wounded once.

It was originally dominated by patriotic socialist and syndicalist veterans who opposed the pacifist policies of the Italian Socialist Party. On 15 April , the Fascists made their debut in political violence, when a group of members from the Fasci di Combattimento attacked the offices of Avanti!

Mussolini changed his original revolutionary policies, such as moving away from anti-clericalism to supporting the Roman Catholic Church and abandoned his public opposition to the monarchy.

In , Giolitti had come back as Prime Minister in an attempt to solve the deadlock. Giolitti believed that the Fascists could be toned down and used to protect the state from the socialists.

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