Frankfurt lost its independence after the Austro-Prussian War in when Prussia annexed several smaller states, among them the Free City of Frankfurt.
Frankfurt had stayed neutral in the war, [ citation needed ] but its free press bothered the Prussians and they used the opportunity to occupy the city by force: Bismarck had been an ambassador to the German Confederation there and constantly quarrelled with the local press.
The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The Prussian occupation and annexation was perceived as a great injustice in Frankfurt, which retained its distinct western European, urban and cosmopolitan character.
The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in From 6 April to 17 May , following military intervention to put down the Ruhr uprising , Frankfurt was occupied by French troops.
During the Nazi era , the synagogues of the city were destroyed. Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II — About 5, residents were killed during the raids, and the once-famous medieval city centre , by that time the largest in Germany, was almost completely destroyed.
It became a ground battlefield on 26 March , when the Allied advance into Germany was forced to take the city in contested urban combat that included a river assault.
The 5th Infantry Division and the 6th Armored Division of the United States Army captured Frankfurt after several days of intense fighting, and it was declared largely secure on 29 March After the end of the war, Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse- Darmstadt and the Prussian Hesse provinces.
The city was part of the American Zone of Occupation of Germany. Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital city of the newly founded state of West Germany in The city constructed a parliament building that was never used for its intended purpose it housed the radio studios of Hessischer Rundfunk.
A few landmark buildings were reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner e. The collection of historically significant Cairo Genizah documents of the Municipal Library was destroyed by the bombing.
According to Arabist and Genizah scholar S. Goitein , "not even handlists indicating its contents have survived.
Following this decision, more financial institutions were re-established, e. Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank. It is the largest city in the federated state of Hesse in the south-western part of Germany.
Frankfurt is located on both sides of the Main River , south-east of the Taunus mountain range. The city area is The city centre is north of the River Main in Altstadt district the historical centre and the surrounding Innenstadt district.
The geographical centre is in Bockenheim district near Frankfurt West station. Frankfurt is the centre of the densely populated Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region with a population of 5.
The city is divided into 46 city districts Stadtteile , which are in turn divided into city boroughs Stadtbezirke and electoral districts Wahlbezirke.
The 46 city districts combine into 16 area districts Ortsbezirke , which each have a district committee and chairperson.
Some larger housing areas are often falsely called city districts, even by locals, like Nordweststadt part of Niederursel , Heddernheim and Praunheim , Goldstein part of Schwanheim , Riedberg part of Kalbach-Riedberg and Europaviertel part of Gallus.
Bornheim was part of an administrative district called Landkreis Frankfurt , before becoming part of the city on 1 January , followed by Bockenheim on 1 April Seckbach , Niederrad and Oberrad followed on 1 July In the same year a new city district, Riederwald , was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Seckbach and Ostend.
Dornbusch became a city district in It was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Eckenheim and Ginnheim. Bergen-Enkheim was the last suburb to become part of Frankfurt on 1 January Flughafen became an official city district in It was part of Bonames until Kalbach was officially renamed Kalbach-Riedberg in because of the large residential housing development in the area known as Riedberg.
Together with these towns and some larger nearby towns, e. The urban area had an estimated population of 2. Its average annual temperature is With a population of , within its administrative boundaries  and of 2,, in the actual urban area ,  Frankfurt is the fifth largest city in Germany after Berlin , Hamburg, Munich and Cologne.
With , residents in , it was the ninth largest city in Germany and the number of inhabitants grew to , before World War II.
After the war, at the end of the year , the number had dropped to , In the following years, the population grew again and reached an all-time-high of , in It dropped again to , in but has increased since then.
According to the demographic forecasts for central Frankfurt, the city will have a population up to , within its administrative boundaries in and more than 2.
During the s, the state government of Hesse wanted to include the entire urban area into its administrative boundaries. This would have made Frankfurt officially the second largest city in Germany after Berlin with up to 3 million inhabitants.
According to data from the city register of residents , For the first time, a majority of the city residents had a partial non-German background. The city is considered a multicultural city because it is home to people of more than nationalities.
Frankfurt was historically a Protestant -dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics moved there.
The Jewish community has a history dating back to Medieval times and has always ranked among the largest in Germany. Two synagogues operate there.
Due to the growing immigration of people from Muslim countries beginning in the s, Frankfurt has a large Muslim community. As of [update] , the largest Christian denominations were Roman Catholicism The other four cities are the second to fifth largest cities in Hesse: Wiesbaden , Kassel , Darmstadt and Offenbach am Main.
A kreisfreie Stadt has territorial sovereignty within its defined city limits. Frankfurt is twinned with:. Partnerships and city friendships are a weaker form of cooperation than the sister city relationship, acting more like a fixed-term cooperation or limited to certain projects.
Frankfurt has partnerships with the following cities:. The houses were acquired by the city council in from a wealthy merchant family.
The middle house became the city hall and was later connected with its neighbours. Frankfurt Cathedral Frankfurter Dom is not a cathedral, but the main Catholic church, dedicated to St.
The Gothic building was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time.
From onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from to , Roman-German emperors were crowned there.
Since the 18th century, St. In it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in its present style. It was again partially destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in the s.
Its height is 95 meters. The cathedral tower has a viewing platform open to the public at a height of 66 meters, accessed through a narrow spiral staircase with steps.
It was established in as a Protestant church, but was not completed until The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia and Austria did not want to lose power.
In Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force and the parliament dissolved. Afterwards, the building was used for church services again.
It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is used mainly for exhibitions and events. The Archaeological Garden contains small parts of the oldest recovered buildings: It was discovered after World War II when the area was heavily bombed and later partly rebuilt.
The remains were preserved and are now open to the public. There are plans underway to construct a building on top of the garden but anyhow it is decided that the garden will stay open to the public.
Wertheim House is the only timbered house in the Altstadt district that survived the heavy bombings of World War II undamaged. The Saalhof is the oldest conserved building in the Altstadt district and dates to the 12th century.
It was used as an exhibition hall by Dutch clothiers when trade fairs were held during the 14th and 15th century. Today it serves as a part of the Historical Museum.
It was built in and was the second bridge to cross the river. Today some 10, people cross the bridge on a daily basis. The Alte Oper is a former opera house , hence the name "Old Opera".
The opera house was built in by architect Richard Lucae. Later on, Arndt said he never had meant his suggestion seriously.
Public pressure led to its refurbishment and reopening in Today, it functions as a famous concert hall, while operas are performed at the "new" Frankfurt Opera.
The inscription on the frieze of the Alte Oper says: The Eschenheim Tower Eschenheimer Turm was erected at the beginning of the 15th century and served as a city gate as part of late-medieval fortifications.
It is the oldest and most unaltered building in the Innenstadt district. It is located in the city centre at the entrance to the Zeil, the central pedestrian shopping street.
Although today Hauptwache is mostly associated with the inner-city underground train station of the same name , the name originates from a baroque building on the square above the station.
The Hauptwache building was constructed in and was used as a prison, therefore the name that translates as "main guard-house". Today the square surrounding the building is also called "Hauptwache" formal: It is situated in the city centre opposite to St.
Frankfurt Central Station Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof , which opened in , was built as the central train station for Frankfurt to replace three smaller train stations in the city centre and to boost the needed capacity for travellers.
It was constructed as a terminus station and was the largest train station in Europe by floor area until when Leipzig Central Station was opened.
Its three main halls were constructed in a neorenaissance -style, while the later enlargement with two outer halls in was constructed in neoclassic -style.
The Frankfurter Hof is a landmarked hotel in the city centre at Kaiserplatz, built from to Leonhard , on the Main close to the bridge Eiserner Steg, is a Catholic late Gothic hall church , derived from a Romanesque style basilica beginning in The parish serves the English-speaking community.
The church has been under restoration since The first building to exceed the metre-high cathedral was not an office building but a grain silo , the metre high Henninger Turm , built from to None of the buildings constructed during the s surpassed Silberturm.
The most famous buildings from this decade are the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers at Taunusanlage, both The s featured a second wave. Messeturm , built on the trade fair site, reached a height of It was overtaken by the metre high Commerzbank Tower in Other tall buildings from this decade are Westendstrasse 1 In 21st-century Frankfurt, more high-rise buildings and skyscrapers e.
With a large forest, many parks, the Main riverbanks and the two botanical gardens, Frankfurt is considered a "green city": More than 50 percent of the area within the city limits are protected green areas.
With more than 30 museums, Frankfurt has one of the largest variety of museums in Europe. Not directly located on the northern riverbank in the Altstadt district are:.
Another important museum is located in the Westend district:. Eurodance and Trance music originated in Frankfurt.
By doing so a new genre was born: Some of the early and most influential Eurodance, Trance and Techno acts, e. Frankfurt offers a variety of restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs.
Restaurants, bars and pubs concentrate in Sachsenhausen , Nordend , Bornheim and Bockenheim. One of the main venues of the early Trance music sound was the Omen nightclub closed Because of the location at the airport the club had no restrictions regarding opening hours.
The club had to close at the end of because of stricter fire safety regulations. Also notable for its extraordinary design was Coocoon Club in Fechenheim which opened in was and voted best techno club of the year by music magazines "Groove" and "Raveline" in , , and It closed in The airport has four runways and serves non-stop destinations.
The airport also serves as a hub for Condor and as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa. Depending upon whether total passengers or flights are used for calculations, it ranks third or second busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport.
Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in was There are plans to expand the airport with a third passenger terminal to increase the capacity up to 88 million in The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two railway stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic.
Hahn Airport is a major base for low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus.
An hourly bus service runs from Frankfurt Central Station , taking about 1-hour and 45 minutes. Frankfurt is a traffic hub for the German motorway Autobahn system.
The Bundesautobahn A is mainly a commuter motorway which starts in the south Egelsbach , runs through the eastern part and ends in the north Oberursel.
The Bundesautobahn A is a very short motorway in the western part which primarily serves as a fast connection between the A 66 and the Frankfurt Trade Fair.
The A5 in the west, the A3 in the south and the A in the north-east form a ring road around the inner city districts and define a Low-emission zone Umweltzone ; established in , meaning that vehicles have to meet certain emission criteria to enter the zone.
The streets of central Frankfurt are usually congested with cars during rush hour. Car parks are located throughout the city and especially in the city centre.
By daily passenger volume, it ranks second together with Munich Central Station , each after Hamburg Central Station , It is located between the Gallus , the Gutleutviertel and the Bahnhofsviertel district, not far away from the trade fair and the financial district.
Regional and local trains are integrated in the Public transport system Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund RMV , the second largest integrated public transport systems in the world, after Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg.
Frankfurt Airport can be accessed by two railway stations: Frankfurt Airport long-distance station Frankfurt Flughafen Fernbahnhof is only for long-distance traffic and connects the airport to the main rail network, with most of the ICE services using the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line.
The long-distance station is located outside the actual airport ground but has a connecting bridge for pedestrians to Terminal 1, concourse B.
The regional station is located within Terminal 1, concourse B. The Frankfurt Trade Fair offers two railway stations: Two other major railway stations in the city centre are Konstablerwache and Hauptwache, located on each end of the Zeil.
They are the main stations to change from east-to-west-bound S-Bahn trains to north-to-south-bound U-Bahn trains.
Konstablerwache station is the second-busiest railway station regarding daily passenger volume , after the central station. The third-busiest railway station is Hauptwache station , There are three stations for intercity bus services in Frankfurt: The city has two rapid transit systems: Most routes have at least minute service during the day, either by one line running every 15 minutes, or by two lines servicing one route at a minute interval.
When leaving the city the S-Bahn travels above ground. The trains that run on the U-Bahn are in fact light rail Stadtbahn as many lines travel along a track in the middle of the street instead of underground further from the city centre.
The minimum service interval is 2. Frankfurt has ten tram lines 11, 12, 14 to 21 , with trams arriving usually every 10 minutes.
Many sections are served by two lines, combining to run at 5-minute intervals during rush-hour. Trams only run above ground and serve more stops than the U-Bahn or the S-Bahn.
A number of bus lines complete the Frankfurt public transport system. Night buses replace U-Bahn and tram services between 1: Taxicabs can usually be found outside the major S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations, at the central station, the south station, the airport, the trade fair and in the crowded inner-city shopping streets.
The common way to obtain a taxi is to either call a taxi operator or to go to a taxi rank. However, although not the norm, one can hail a passing taxi on the street.
Uber ceased operations in Frankfurt on 9 November after operating in the city for 18 months. Deutsche Bahn makes bicycles available for hire through their Call a Bike service.
The bicycles are stationed all over the city, including at selected railway stations. They can easily be spotted because of their eye-catching silver-red colour.
To rent a specific bike, riders either call a service number to get an unlock code or reserve the bike via the smartphone application. To return the bike, the rider locks it within a designated return area and calls the service number, if not booked via the app.
Nextbike also makes bicycles available for hire in Frankfurt. They are stationed all over the city. These can be spotted with their blue color scheme.
Cycle rickshaws velotaxis , a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver, are also available.
These are allowed to operate in pedestrian-only areas and are therefore practical for sightseeing. Frankfurt has a network of cycle routes. Many long-distance bike routes into the city have cycle tracks that are separate from motor vehicle traffic.
A number of roads in the city centre are "bicycle streets" where the cyclist has the right of way and where motorised vehicles are only allowed access if they do not disrupt the cycle users.
In addition, cyclists are allowed to ride many cramped one-way streets in both directions. As of [update] , 15 percent of citizens used bicycles.
Indications are the establishment of two institutions of the European System of Financial Supervisors European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and European Systemic Risk Board in and the Single Supervisory Mechanism by which the European Central Bank was to assume responsibility for specific supervisory tasks related to the financial stability of the biggest and most important Eurozone banks.
With over jobs per 1, inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest concentration of jobs in Germany. On work days and Saturdays one million people commute from all over the Rhein-Main-Area.
The city is expected to benefit from international banks relocating jobs from London to Frankfurt as a result of Brexit to retain access to the EU market.
Frankfurt is home to two important central banks: The new building complex was designed to accommodate up to 2, ECB personnel.
The location is a few kilometres away from the city centre and borders an industrial area as well as the Osthafen East Harbour , It was primarily chosen because of its large premises which allows the ECB to install security arrangements without high fences.
The Bundesbank was greatly respected for its control of inflation through the second half of the 20th century.
In , 63 national and international banks had a registered office, including the headquarters of the major German banks, as well as 41 offices of international banks.
Many international banks have a registered or a representative office, e. By the 16th century Frankfurt had developed into an important European hub for trade fairs and financial services.
The most important stock market index is the DAX , the index of the 30 largest German business companies listed at the stock exchange. Trading takes place exclusively via the Xetra trading system , with redundant floor brokers taking on the role of market-makers on the new platform.
These markets are at the heart of the financial system and it is crucial for the whole European economy that they remain competitive.
We tried to find a solution, but the remedies offered fell far short of resolving the concerns. Frankfurt Trade Fair Messe Frankfurt has the third-largest exhibition site in the world with a total of , square metres 6,, square feet.
The trade fair premises are located in the western part between Bockenheim , the Westend and the Gallus district. It houses ten exhibition halls with a total of , square meters 3,, square feet of space and 96, square metres 1,, square feet of outdoor space.
Messe Frankfurt GmbH, the owner and operator company, organized 87 exhibitions in , 51 thereof in foreign countries. It is one of the largest trade fair companies with commercial activities in over countries.
A landmark building of the trade fair and of the whole city is the Messeturm the name translates as Fair Trade Tower , which was the tallest building in Europe from to It is located on the north-east corner of the trade fair premises at the so-called city entrance.
Despite the name it is not used for exhibition but serves as an office tower. National needs regulations commercial centers sweeping the legislation to year.
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